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About Tomsk

Tomsk city was founded as a stockaded town in 1604.

Since 1629 Tomsk has received the status of a city, the center of the Siberian region.

Since the XVIII century it is the most developed trade and craft city of Siberia.

In 1726 Tomsk was joined to the Tobolsk province as a county town.

In 1804 Tomsk became the main city of the new Tomsk province.

Tomsk stockaded town, built in 1604 by a squad of service people, put the beginning of the city. They arrived under the command of G. Pisemsky and V. Tyrkov from Surgut.

A place on the right bank of the Tom River, which gave the name to the future city, was chosen for the erection of the stockaded town. On three sides this place had natural fortifications, a river, swamps, a steep cliff. The fourth, northern side was strengthened during construction. The central part of the stockaded town was surrounded by wooden walls, with guard towers and entrance gates. Guns and arquebuses stood on the towers, there was constantly carried guard. Tomsk stockaded town became one of the bearing bases for squads of Cossacks moving farther to the south and east in search of new lands and convenient routes to the shores of the Okhotsk Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Near the stockaded town there was quickly formed a trading quarter, populated by service people and Russian frontier people, whom were sent here by the authorities from Vologda, Velikiy Luk, Ustyug and other cities. The population of the stockaded town was growing rapidly. By 1626 there were more than 500 families, and in 1646 their number increased to 884. Since 1629 Tomsk already had the status of a city, the center of the Siberian region. The frontier people received plots of arable land and pastures for livestock, engaged in fur trapping, fishing, various crafts and trade. The settlers lived in peace and harmony with the locals, who accepted Russian citizenship. The fortress protected them from the raids of nomads, and Russian peasants and artisans introduced native Siberians to unknown earlier by them grain and technical cultures, with new crafts and methods of construction. Since then on the Tomsk lands there began sowing of rye, wheat, oats; cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, onions, radish and garlic appeared in the gardens, such technical crops as flax and hemp were cultivated.

In most of the Russian cities of Siberia, a yasak (tax on the royal treasury) was collected from the local population. Yasak was paid in furs. Each hunter's family handed over 10 sables. So it was in Tomsk, but by the end of the XVII century, instead of yasak, the local population was given a Yamskaya duty to transport cargo from Tomsk to Tobolsk and back. The native-born Siberians together with the Russian Cossacks and streltsy kept sentry, went to military campaigns against nomads of the steppe, served as “a spin doctors” - interpreters.

In the XVIII century the Russian border moved to the south. The construction of the border fortifications was moved to the North Altai. The strategic importance of Tomsk decreased, part of the garrison was transferred to the Biysk and Ust-Kamenogorsk fortresses. However, much earlier Tomsk became not only a military city, but also acquired the importance of the trade and craft center of Siberia. This was facilitated by his position on the main Siberian tract, with which a huge stream of goods moved through the city. more than 10 families of Bukhara merchants, who brought goods from Central Asia, were resided in Tomsk. Here they bought up furs and sold it in the Central Asian cities. The Russian merchants also came to the city with the goods. At the beginning of the XVIII century a large bazaar was established near the mouth of the Ushayka River in Tom.

In 1719 Tomsk was attached to the Yenisei province, and in 1726 to the Tobolsk province as a district center. The importance of Tomsk grew with the increasing importance of the Siberian tract. By the 40th years of the XVIII century on the section of the path to Tomsk mile posts were placed and bridges were built. Along the road there were Russian villages and settlement. Tomsk became a major trading city, a transit center of Siberia. Among the urban population there were more and more merchants associated with out-of-town trade. They transported goods to the Irbitskaya and Makarevskaya fairs, they traded silk fabrics and tea imported from China. Urban craft began to develop more actively. Tomsk artisans made horse harness, wove ropes, sewed shoes and mittens, made chests. In the city there were dozens of smithies, and in the surrounding villages they made sledges, carts, arcs, wheels, drove resin and tar. Products of masters were taken to Tomsk. Everything was subordinated to the needs of the Siberian tract, including the carrying trade, which dealt with considerable number of residents of the city.

By the beginning of the XIX century 8 thousand people lived in Tomsk. In 1804 due to the separation of several counties from the Tobolsk province a new Tomsk province was formed. Then Tomsk has received the status of a provincial city, which affected both its economic development and appearance. In the city there were more stone buildings, wooden pavements and sidewalks. However, work on the improvement of Tomsk completely fell on ordinary city dwellers who were supposed to deliver construction materials, make decking, dig ditches for water drainage.

The rapid growth of Tomsk began in the late 30-ies of the XIX century. In the Tomsk and Yenisei provinces gold mines were discovered. Since 1822 the Tomsk civil governor was also the major chief of Altai mining plants, in Tomsk there was the Mountain Chancellery. A lot of shops, hotels, luxury mansions of new merchants - "millionaires" appeared in the city, small industrial enterprises began to work. Trade turnover increased. Goods flowed in a continuous stream to Tomsk by land and river routes. Leather goods from Moscow, Yaroslavl, and Kazan were brought here. The saffian, which sold well in the markets of Central Asia and China, was especially popular. Homespun cloth, axes, knives, locks, scissors, boilers and nails had wide sales in Tomsk.

At the end of the XIX century Tomsk continued to maintain the importance of the shopping center of Siberia. In Tomsk province over a year more than 60 fairs, where the amount of goods sold exceeded 50 million rubles a year, were passed. The growth of trade affected the development of transport. With a weak industry, a special place in Tomsk was occupied by craftsmen, representing 35 different kinds of crafts, among which the carrier trade stood in the first place. River transport developed rapidly. By the end of the century over 100 steamers were navigating the rivers of Western Siberia, most of which belonged to Tomsk companies and merchants. But the development of the shipping company could not meet the demands of a rapidly growing trade. In 1891 the Russian government decided to build the Siberian railway. In 1896 a branch line was stretched to Tomsk. Railway workshops, which gave rise to the development of large-scale industry, appeared in the city.

By the beginning of the 20th century there were 208 plants and factories in Tomsk. In addition to the traditional tanneries, tallow-melting, candle, brick enterprises, in the city there were organized a sleeve, furniture, candy production. By that time more than 25 thousand people lived in Tomsk, 13 thousand buildings were built, of which 6 thousand dwelling houses. The city had electric lighting, trams, telephone network. Tomsk had outstripped all other cities of Siberia while was a commercial and industrial center. Its importance of the central warehouse of large Russian Siberian firms grew every year.

The city gained fame as a scientific and cultural center. In 1888 the first university in Siberia was opened in Tomsk, in 1900 - the Technological Institute, the higher technical educational institution. 59 gymnasiums, colleges, schools, three public libraries, a theater, a branch of the Moscow Society of Agriculture, urban gardening, hunting, promoting the physical development of children societies and the Department of the Russian Musical Society worked in the city.

In 1900 there were 208 small factories and factories (among others - furniture, candy, sleeve, distillery, brick, tanneries, candle waxes, breweries, vodka, cloth).

During the Civil War in 1918-1919 the Siberian Regional Duma and the Provisional Siberian Government of the Socialist-Revolutionaries were formed in Tomsk, the rebellion of the Czechoslovak Corps was held. During the Patriotic War factories from the European part of the country were evacuated to Tomsk. From 1940 to 1953 industrial production grew by 4 times. Tomsk is the birthplace of the composer E.V. Denisov and the architect M.V. Posokhin.

Denisov Edison Vasilievich (1929-1996) is Russian composer, Honored Artist of Russia (1990). Author of such works as opera " Froth on the Daydream " (1981), "Confession" ballet (delivered in 1984), vocal-instrumental compositions (including "Requiem", 1980), works for instruments with orchestra, chamber-instrumental and vocal compositions, music to plays and films, musicological works. People's Artist of Russia (1995).
Posokhin Mikhail Vasilyevich [November 30 (December 13) 1910, Tomsk - 1989], Soviet architect, People's Architect of the USSR (1970), full member of the Academy of Arts of the USSR (1979). Chief architect of Moscow (1960-82). Head of the draft General Plan for the Development of Moscow (approved in 1971).

Science and Culture

There are preserved architectural monuments: in the old building of Tomsk there is a baroque church of the Resurrection (1789-1807), on the Market Square there is a stone Gostiny Dvor (18th century). The Classicism style is presented by the building of the Magistrate (1802-1812), the Presence places (A.P. Deyev, 1830-1842), the Exchange Complex (1851-1854), the Main Building of the University (A.K. Bruni, 1880-1885). Among buildings of the 20th century there are interesting post-war corps Polytech (I.Kh. Khranenko, 1952-1954) and the Palace of Culture (J.A. Kornfeld, 1957). A characteristic features of the city space are the abundance of greenery, the preservation of natural forest areas, the abundance of stone and wooden buildings of the provincial period with picturesque carvings. The city is surrounded by small blocks of cedar, fir, pine and birch park forests, meadows - "elans", which are brightly blooming in summer.

Among the scientific and educational institutions of the city there are the scientific center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chemistry, Petroleum, Tomsk State University, Tomsk Polytechnic University, Siberian State Medical University, military-medical, architecture-construction, pedagogical universities.

Cultural institutions of the city are drama theater, museums (art, local history, wooden architecture, archeology and ethnography of Siberia, paleontological, zoological).